Die Negation

Hi everyone!

I believe that most of the people knows how to say “no” in German, even those ones who don’t study it. My mother was visiting me in Germany last month and “Ja oder Nein” are for sure words that she can speak now! But this is not the only way to negate in German and this is what we are going to see in this post today!


The German adverb “nicht” is the English equivalent of “not” and is used in a sentence when:

  • The noun to be negated has a definite article:

Er trinkt das Bier nicht. (He is not drinking the beer.)

  • The noun to be negated has a possessive pronoun:

Er mag seine Arbeit nicht. (He does not like his work.)

  • The verb is to be negated:

Ich fotografiere nicht. (I do not photograph.)

  • An adverb/adverbial phrase is to be negated:

Sie schwimmt nicht schnell. (She does not swim fast.)

  • An adjective is used with the verb sein:

Ich bin nicht sicher. (I am not sure.)


Bloss nicht ärgern

The position of nicht is not always so clear, but it generally precedes adverbs, verbs, separable verb prefix, verb infinitives, adjectives and prepositional phrases and follows adverbs that can be organized chronologically.

Ich kann überhaupt nicht singen. (I can not at all sing.)

Er wird nicht sofort kommen. (He will not come right away.)


Depending on the sentence, the German adjective kein can have different meanings: no, not any, not a, none, no one, nobody. It is used in a sentence when:

  • The noun to be negated has an indefinite article:

Ich habe keinen Fotoapparat. (I have no camara.)

  • The noun has no article:

Ich möchte keinen Tennisschläger zum Geburtstag. (I do not want tennis racket for birthday.)


Nur keine Panik

Note! Although ein has no plural, kein does and follows the Gemischte Deklination.


When nicht and kein negate only a clause, then usually the second clause that follows will begin with the conjunction sondern.

Ich fahre nicht mit dem Auto, sondern mit dem Zug. (I won’t travel with the car, but with the train.)

Ich fahre nicht am Samstag, sondern am Sonntag. (I won’t travel on Saturday, but on Sunday.)

Ich habe keinen Kaffee, sondern Tee bestellt. (I didn’t order coffee, but tea.)

Sie hat sich keine Jacke gekauft, sondern eine Hose. (She didn’t buy a jacket, but trousers.)

“N” Negationswörter

The other n-words are the pronouns niemand (nobody, no one) and nichts (nothing) and the adverbs niemals ( never), nie (never) and nirgendwo (nowhere).

Wenn niemand niemals nirgendswo hingeht, dann kann keiner niemanden treffen, nicht wahr? Keine Sorgen! Dies wird nie geschehen.

(If nobody never goes anywhere, then no one could meet anybody, is that not so? No worries! This will never happen.)

The indefinite pronouns nichts and niemand can replace either a subject or object:

Niemand hat mich heute gesehen. (Nobody saw me today.)

Ich will mit niemanden spielen. (I don’t want to play with anybody.)

Nichts schmeckt gut. (Nothing tastes good.)

Er will nichts essen. (He doesn’t want to eat anything.)

Nichts is an undeclinable pronoun and niemand was for a long time declinable, but it is now correct to also leave it undeclined (both ways are acceptable). Niemand is a singular word that doesn’t have a plural and its declination is: niemand (nominative), niemandes (genitive), niemandem (dative) and niemanden (accusative).

Er hat heute niemand(en) gesehen. (He saw no one today.)

Nichts is not the plural or the declination of nicht.  They can not be interchanged because nicht is an adverb that means “not” and nichts is a pronoun that means “nothing”.

The adverbs niemals, nie and nirgendwo can stand alone, be placed before a verb or at the end of a phrase:

Er hat mich nie angerufen. (He never called me.)

The word order of this negated sentence allows for a contrasting negation with sondern:

Er hat mich nie angerufen, sondern immer besucht. (He never called me, he always visited me.)

Otherwise, these negation words are often placed at or near the end of the sentence:

Er ruft mich nie an. (He never calls me.)

Sie besucht mich niemals. (She never visits me.)

To emphasize the negation, the negation adverb can be placed in the front of the sentence:

Nie hat er mich angerufen! (He has never called me!)

Nirgendwo ist es sicher! (Nowhere is safe!)

Die Frage

Something important to learn is that for a negative question, the positive answer is given with doch and the negative remains unchanged. The following example shows a positive and a negative question with their answers. Compare the structure:

Kommst du mit? (Are you coming?)
Nein, ich komme nicht mit. (No, I am not coming.)/Ja, ich komme mit. (Yes, I am coming.)

Kommst du nicht mit? (Are you not coming?)
Nein, ich komme nicht mit. (No, I am not coming.)/ Doch, ich komme mit. (Yes, I am coming.)

For questions with schon, the answers are given with noch (nicht/kein…):

Hast du schon ein Brot gebacken? (Have you already baked a bread?) 
Nein, ich habe noch kein Brot gebacken. (No, I have not baked any bread yet.)

Hast du schon einmal hässliche Schuhe gekauft? (Have you ever bought ugly shoes?) 
Nein, ich habe noch nicht hässliche Schuhe gekauft. (No, I have not bought ugly shoes yet.)

For questions with noch, the answers are given with (nicht/kein…) mehr:

Gehst du noch zu der Party? (Are you going to the party yet?)
Nein, ich gehe nicht mehr zu der Party. (No, I am not coming to the party anymore.)

It is also important to know the German negation words opposites, to know how to reply to questions involving such words.

Personen jemand, irgendjemand, irgendwer niemand, keiner Wird jemand dich am Bahnhof treffen? (Will somebody meet you at the train station?)
Nein, niemand wird mich am Bahnhof treffen. (Nobody is going to meet me at the train station.)
Sachen etwas, alles nichts Hast du etwas auf dem Flug gegessen? (Did you eat anything on the flight?)
Ich habe nichts auf dem Flug gegessen.(I ate nothing on the flight.)
Zeit jemals, oft, immer, manchmal nie, niemals Hast du schon jemals Mexiko besucht? (Have you ever visited Mexico?)
Nein, dort war ich noch nie. (No, I have never been there.)
Ort irgendwo, überall nirgendwo, nirgends Irgendwo auf dem Regal muss mein Buch liegen. (Somewhere in my shelf, must be my book.)
Ich kann ihn aber nirgends finden! (But I can’t find it anywhere!) 
Richtung irgendwohin nirgendwohin Gehst du am Wochenende irgendwohin? (Are you going somewhere on the weekend?)
Nein, leider gehe ich am Wochenende nirgendwohin. (No, unfortunately I am not going anywhere on the weekend.)

That is all for today!! 😀

Verben mit Präfix

Hi everyone,

Here I am again, after a long time… sorry about that! :/

I’ve been writing a lot of cool stuffs about German languages because I had German exams some weeks ago!! That really helped me, but it wasn’t good enough (in my point of view) to post!!! I will try to edit some of them from now on and maybe they can also help you to learn!! 😀 hehe

Today’s topic: ,,Verben mit Präfix

There are 2 different kinds of prefixes in German: ,,trennbar” or ,,nicht trennbar“. The first one is weakly linked to the basic verbs (the fragile connection will break after you conjugate it)  and the second one is strongly linked.

As a general rule, whenever a verb consists of more than one part, the first part (the conjugated part) has to be at position 2 of the sentence while ALL the leftovers are at the end. So, remember about that when you are using a weakly linked verb.

Nicht trennbare Verben

All vebs with the following prefix are strongly linked: be-, ent-, ge-, ver-, emp-, er-, miss-, zer-.

beginnen (to begin) ⇨ ich beginne

bezahlen (to pay) ⇨ ich bezahle

erhalten (to obtain) ⇨ ich erhalte

erwarten (to expect)  ich erwarte

vereinbaren (to set up) ⇨ ich vereibare

Trennbare oder nicht trennbare Verben

All vebs with the following prefix can either strongly or weakly linked be: durch-um-wider-über-unter-, wieder.

wiederkommen (to return) ⇨ ich komme wieder

wiederholen (to repeat) ⇨ ich wiederhole

Trennbare Verben

Verbs with all other prefixes are weakly linked.

aufstehen (to get up) ⇨ ich stehe auf

einkaufen (to buy)  ich kaufe ein

fernsehen (to watch TV)  ich sehe fern

anfangen (to get started) ⇨ ich fange an

ausschalten (to switch off) ⇨ ich schalte aus


Tagesablauf- present


 Und du? Was machst du jeden Tag?

That is all for today people! Have fun!!! 😉

Wie spät ist es?

Hi everyone!

,,Wie viel Uhr ist es?” … ,,Wie spät ist es?“… Do you know how to answer to these questions? Well, both mean “What time is it?” and this is the topic of this post. So, if your answer is no, just continue reading and we will learn together! 😉

First of all, it is recommended to learn or remember the numbers from 1 to 59. You can find information about numbers here.

Let’s have a quick start using some examples:


As you probably have noticed, there are two forms of answering “what time is it?”: one formal and another informal.


For formal answers (timetables, TV guides, store hours), Germans use 24-hour (“military”) time.

English “o’clock” is ,,Uhr” in German:

5.00 Uhr ⇨ ,,Es ist fünf Uhr” (It is five o’clock)

For precise times, you SAY ,,Uhr” between the hour and the minutes. But it must be WRITTEN with ,,Uhr” in the end:

geschrieben: 20.12 Uhr ⇨ gesprochen: ,,Es ist zwanzig Uhr zwölf


Informal answers are not used with 24-hour time.

“To” or “before” is ,,vor” and “past” is ,,nach“:

10.50 Uhr ⇨ ,,Es ist zehn vor elf” (It is ten to eleven)

10.10 Uhr ⇨ ,,Es ist zehn nach ten” (It is ten past ten)

To say “half” in german, we use ,,halb“. But the structure is a little different: in English we say “it is half past” + the actual “hour”, but in German we say ,,Es ist halb” + the next “hour”:

8.30 Uhr ⇨,,Es ist halb neun” (It is half past eight)

To say “a quarter past”, we use ,,viertel nach” and to say “a quarter to”, we use ,,viertel vor

 4.15 Uhr ⇨,,Es ist viertel nach vier” (It is a quarter past four)

1.45 Uhr ⇨,,Es ist viertel vor zwei” (It is a quarter to two)

We can also use the word ,,kurz” (short) when it is only a few minutes:

4.13 Uhr ⇨,,Es ist kurz vor viertel nach vier” (It is almost a quarter past four)

3.02 Uhr ⇨,,Es ist kurz nach drei” (It is a few minutes past three)


  1. Watch out for 1.00 Uhr. With time it’s ,,ein Uhr” and NOT ,,eins Uhr“.
  2. With 24-hour time, be precise: ,,Es ist zehn Uhr neun” (10.09 Uhr).

Take a look at the picture bellow. There you can see that an hour is divided up like a pie into quarters (,,Viertel“) and halves (,,halb“). It is a great summary for who is learning!

wie spät ist es

Do you want to practice more? I found this interesting website where you can practice the time in German: ,,Wie spät ist es?

That`s all for today! I hope you had fun! 😉

Wechselpräpositionen in lokaler Bedeutung

Hallo zusammen!!! Today I will talk about something I have already talked about here and here, but today I will focus on the “two-way” prepositions. As explained before, the basic rule for determining whether a two-way preposition should have an object in the accusative or dative case is motion versus location.

  • The ,,Akkusativ” occurs when there is motion towards something or to a specific location (,,wohin?“,where to?).
  • The ,,Dativ” occurs when there is no motion at all or random motion going nowhere in particular (,,wo?“, where (at)?).
Wechselpräpositionen in lokaler Bedeutung

Wechselpräpositionen in lokaler Bedeutung

What I have  just learned at my German class is that there are some ,,Aktionsverben” and ,,Positionsverben” that have the same meaning, but sometimes are written in a different way. Here they are:

Aktionsverben Wohin? = Aktion = Akkusativ Positionsverben Wo? = Position = Dativ
be, be located legen liegen
stand stellen stehen
hang hängen hängen
sit, be situated setzen sitzen
plug, put stecken stecken

Let’s practice a little bit!! Take a look at this room: ZD3_Room


  1. Wo stehen die Bücher? Die Bücher stehen auf dem Bücherregal.
  2. Wo hängen die Bilder? Die Bilder hängen an der Wand.
  3. Wo liegt die Tasche? Die Tasche liegt unter dem Tisch.
  4. Wo steht der Stuhl? Der Stuhl steht vor dem Tisch.
  5. Wo hängt die Lampe? Die Lampe hängt über dem Sofa.


  1. Wohin hängst du das Regal? Ich hänge das Regal über das Sofa.
  2. Wohin stellst du den Computer? Ich stelle den Computer auf den Tisch.
  3. Wohin hängst du die Kleidung? Ich hänge die Kleidung in den Kleiderschrank.
  4. Wohin legst du den gelben Teddybär? Ich lege den gelben Teddybär unter das Sofa.
  5. Wohin stellst du die Pflanze? Ich stelle die Pflanze auf das Regal.

Now, use these examples to write your own sentences and practice more!!! See ya 😉

color adjective

Hi everyone!!!

I know that I’ve not been writing for a very long time… but I do have been checking who is visiting my blog and answering their questions and compliments!! I’m really happy that a lot of people (more than 2000 today) from all of the world are reading my blog (I didn’t expected that at first!)…

Today I want to write something, because today ,,Deutsch jeden Tag” is getting old!!!! 1 year sharing knowledge about German language!!! 😀


Aaahh, from now on I am going to write more, because I’m back to Germany and I want to learn fast!!! 😉

Today I’m going to talk about German words for colors. It is recommended to remember German colors  and adjectives declensions typ 1, typ 2 and typ 3 before!

German words for colors usually function as adjectives and take the normal adjective endings (with some exceptions):

,,der rote Wagen” (the red car)

,,die rosa Rosen” (the pink roses)*

,,ein blaues Auge” (a black eye)

,,die hellblaue Bluse” (the light blue blouse)**

,,die dunkelblaue Bluse” (the dark blue blouse)**

,,der grüne Hut” (the green hat)

,,die gelben Seiten” (yellow pages)

,,das weiße Papier” (the white paper)

,,der schwarze Koffer” (the black suitcase)

*Colors ending in –a (lila, rosa) do not take the normal adjective endings.
**Light or dark colors are preceded by hell– (light) or dunkel– (dark), as in hellgrün (light green) or dunkelgrün (dark green).


  1. In certain situations, colors can also be nouns and are thus capitalized:

,,eine Bluse in Blau” (a blouse in blue)

,,das Blaue vom Himmel versprechen” (to promise heaven and earth, lit., “the blue of the heavens”)

So, that’s all for today!! Hope you like it!!! 😀

die Adjektivdeklination – Typ 3

Hi everyone,

Let’s continue talking about adjective endings…

To review the Strong inflexion, click here: Starke Deklination.

To review the Mixed inflexion, click here: Gemischte Deklination.

Typ 3 : Schwasche Deklination

Weak inflection, or ,,Schwasche Deklination“, is used:

  • After the definite article
  • After ,,derselb-” (the same), ,,derjenig-” (the one)
  • After ,,dies-” (this), ,,jen-” (that), ,,jeglich-” (any), ,,jed-” (every), which decline like the definite article.
  • After ,,manch-” (some), ,,solch-“ (such), ,,welch-” (which), which decline like definite article.
  • After ,,mir”, ,,dir“, ,,ihm
  • After ,,arm” (meagre), ,,alt” (old), ,,all” (all)
Weak Inflexion
 Nominativ -e -e -e -en
 Akkusativ -en -e -e -en
 Dativ -en -en -en -en
Genitiv  -en -en -en -en

The adjective endings rule with the definite article (derdiedas) or the so-called der-words (dieserjeder, etc.) is simple:

  1. The adjective endings in the nominative is always ,,-e” (except for the plural that is always ,,-en” in all situations!).
  2. The adjective endings in the  accusative identical to those in the nominative case, except for the masculine gender (der/den).
  3. The adjective endings in the dative and genitive is ALWAYS –en!

Adjektivdeklination typ 3

That is all I’ve learned about adjective endings by now!!!! So, keep practicing and wait for new posts!! 😀

die Adjektivdeklination – Typ 2

Hi everyone, Let’s continue talking about adjective endings… To review the Strong inflexion, click here: Starke Deklination.

Typ 2 : Gemischte Deklination

Mixed inflection, or ,,Gemischte Deklination“, is used:

  • After the indefinite article ,,ein-“, ,,kein-
  • After the possessive determiners in singular.
Mixed Inflexion
Männlich masculine Weiblich feminine Sächlich neuter Mehrzahl plural
 Nominativ -er -e -es -en*1
 Akkusativ -en -e -es -en*1
 Dativ -en -en -en -en*1
Genitiv  -en -en -en -en*1

*1 kein/e/n is used to show the plural because you can say “no shoes” but not “a shoes”! With ein-words (ein, deinkeine, etc.), the adjective must reflect the gender of the noun that follows.

  1. The adjective endings in the nominative ,,-er“, ,,-e” and ,,-es” correspond to the articles ,,der“, ,,die“, and ,,das” respectively.
  2. The adjective endings in the  accusative ,,-en“, ,,-e” and ,,-es” correspond to the articles ,,den“, ,,die“, and ,,das” respectively.
  3. The adjective endings in the dative and genitive is ALWAYS –en!

Adjektivdeklination typ 2 I will talk more about the weak inflexion in the next post. As I said previously, keep practicing German gender nouns and cases because it is very important!!! 😉

die Adjektivdeklination – Typ 1


Today I’m going to start talking about German adjectives. In German an adjective is a word that usually go in front of a noun or pronoun they modify, giving more information about their definition.

,,der gute Mann” (the good man)

,,das große Auto” (the big car)

,,die schöne Dame” (the pretty lady)

A German adjective in front of a noun has to have an ending (,,Adjektivdeklination“), which depends on several factors, including gender (der, die, das), case (nominativeaccusativedative) and the type of declension (“strong”, “mixed” or “weak”).

Several adjectives take no ending at all:

  • Singular limiting adjectives: wenig, etwas, genug, and viel
  • The plural limiting phrase ‘ein Paar’
  • When the adjective come after the verb (predicate adjective)

,,Das Haus ist groß.” (The house is large.)

As we already know when to use the German cases, let’s talk about the type of declension:

Typ 1 : Starke Deklination

Strong Inflexion, or ,,Starke Deklination“, is used:

  • When no article is used
  • After ,,etwas” (some; somewhat), ,,mehr” (more), ,,nichts” (nothing)
  • After ,,wenig-” (few), ,,viel-” (much; many), ,,mehrer-” (several; many), ,,all-” (all), which also have strong adjective inflection
  • After personal pronouns other than ,,mir“, ,,dir“, ,,ihm
  • After number adjectives with no endings
Strong Inflexion
 Nominativ -er -e -es -e
 Akkusativ -en -e -es -e
 Dativ -em -er -em -en
Genitiv  -en -er -en -er

Adjektivdeklination typ 1

I will talk more about the other types of declension in the next posts… keep practicing German gender nouns and cases! 😉

See ya!!

Städte – Länder – Sprachen


,,Wie geht es euch?” You already know how to answer to this question!

Today we will learn about something else: ,,die Städte” (the cities),  ,,die Länder” (the countries) and ,,die Sprachen” (the languages).

TIP!    It is not mandatory, but it would be better you if you remember the conjugation of some regular verbs and modal verbs!



Here are some Nations of the World:




 Argentina  Argentinien  Spanisch/Spanish
 Belgium  Belgien  Flämisch/Flemish
 Bolivia  Bolivien  Spanisch/Spanish
 Brazil  Brasilien  Portugiesisch/Portuguese
 Canada  Kanada  Englisch/English
 Chile  Chile  Spanisch/Spanish
 China  China  Chinesisch/Chinese
 Czech Republic  Tschechien  Tschechisch/Czech
 Denmark  Dänemark  Dänisch/Danish
 England  England  Englisch/English
 France  Frankreich  Französisch/French
 Germany  Deutschland  Deutsch/German
 Holland  Holland  Holländisch/Dutch
 India  Indien  Englisch/English
 Italia  Italien  Italienisch/Italian
 Iran  Iran  Iranisch/Iranian
 Japan  Japan  Japanisch/Japanese
 Mexico  Mexiko  Spanisch/Spanish
 Morocco  Marroko  Arabisch/Arabic
 Netherlands  Niederlande  Niederländisch/Dutch
 New Zealand  Neuseeland  Englisch/English
 North Korea  Nordkorea  Koreanisch/Korean
 Norwai  Norwegen  Norwegisch/Norwegian
 Poland  Polen  Polnisch/Polish
 Portugal  Portugal  Portugiesisch/Portuguese
 Russia  Russland  Russisch/Russian
 Scotland  Schottland  Schottisch/Scottish
 Slovakia  Slowakien Slowakisch/Slovak
 South Africa  Südafrika  Afrikaans/Afrikaans
 South Korea  Süddkorea  Koreanisch/Korean
 Spain  Spanien  Spanisch/Spanish
 Sweden  Schweden  Schwedisch/Swedish
 Switzerland  Schweiz  Deutsch/German
 Turkey  Türkei  Türkisch/Turkish
 United States of America/USA  die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika/die USA  Englisch/English

,,Woher kommst du?” (Where do you come from?)

,,Ich komme aus” (I come from…)

,,Wo wohnen Sie?” (Where do you live?)

,,Ich wohne in” (I live in…)

,,Ich wohne jetzt in” (Now I live in…)

,,Wohnt sie jetzt in Portugal?”  (Does she live now in Portugal?)

,,Ja, in Coimbra.” (Yes, in Coimbra.)


  1. die USA/aus den USA/ in den USA
  2. die Niederlande/ aus den Niederlanden/ in den Niederlanden
  3. die Schweiz/ aus der Schweiz/ in der Schweiz
  4. die Türkei/ aus der Türkei/ in der Türkei
  5. die Slowakei/ aus der Slowakei/ in der Slowakei
  6. der Iran/ aus dem Iran/ im Iran

Die geografische Lage angeben



Here are some examples that explain how to ask and answer questions about the geographical location of countries, states and cities:

  • ,,Wo ist denn das?” (Where is that?)
,,Das ist in…” (This is in …)
  • ,,Das kenne ich nicht, wo liegt das?” (I do not know, where is that?)
,,Das liegt im Südosten von Österreich.” (It is located in the southeast of Austria.)
,,Das liegt südlich von Wien.” (It is located south of Vienna.)
  • ,,Wo ist das? In welchem Land ist das?” (Where is it? In which country is it?)
,,Aachen liegt in Westdeutschland.” (Aachen is located in West Germany.)
,,Aachen liegt im Westen von Deutschland.” (Aachen is located in the west of Germany.)
,,Aachen liegt westlich von Köln.” (Aachen is located west of Cologne.)
  • ,,Wo liegt denn das?” (Where is that?)
,,Wien liegt im Nordosten von Österreich.” (Vienna is located in northeastern Austria.)
,,Wien liegt östlich von Linz.” (Vienna is located east of Linz.)
  • ,,Wo liegt den Innsbruck?” (Where is Innsbruck?)
,,Südlich von München.” (Südlich von München.)

Über Sprachen sprechen

Examples of how to ask:

  1. ,,Sprechen Sie…?” (formal)/,,Sprichst du…?” (informal) (Do you speak…?)
  2. ,,Was sprechen Sie?” (formal)/ Was sprichst du?” (informal) (What do you speak?)
  3. ,,Welche Sprache(n) sprechen Sie?” (What language(s) do you speak?)
  4. ,,Welche sprache(n) spricht man in…?” (What language (s) is spoken in …?)
  5. ,,Was spricht man in…?” (What is spoken in …?)

Examples of how to answer:

  1. ,,Ich spreche…” (I speak…)
  2. ,,Bei uns spricht man…” (For us is spoken…)
  3. ,,Bei uns in… spricht man…” (For us in… is spoken…)
  4. ,,Dort spricht man…” (Here we speak …)
  5. ,,Ich kann… sprechen.” (I can … speak.)
  6. ,,Ich spreche etwas Englisch und…” (I speak some English and …)

Ich-Texte schreiben

Ich heisse Aline und komme aus Brasilien. Dort spricht man Portugiesisch. Ich spreche auch Englisch und Deutsch. Ich wohne jetzt in Rio de Janeiro. Das liegt in Sudösten von Brasilien.

Want to learn more? Check the post W-Fragen!

I hope you liked it.

See ya!! 😀

der Genitiv


I’m glad to communicate that we are at the final step of our “Marathon of German Grammatical Cases” (MGGC)!!!! LOL

The genitive case in German shows possession, is used with some verb idioms and with the genitive prepositions. In English, it is expressed by the possessive “of” or an apostrophe-s (‘s). The genitive only has two forms: des/eines (masculine and neuter) or der/einer (feminine and plural).  Click here for more informations.

der Genitiv - Charlie Brown


  1. Some masculine nouns add an –en or –n ending in the genitive and in all other cases besides the nominative. ⇨ ,,des Architekten” (architect)
  2. Feminine and plural nouns do not add an ending in the genitive.
  3. The adjectives almost always have an –en ending. ⇨ ,,des neuen Autos” (the new car)
  4. The genitive form of most neuter and masculine nouns in German have either –es or –s ending (almost all nouns ending in sssßschz or tz must end with -es in the genitive). ⇨ ,,das Auto meines Bruders” (my brother’s car) or ,,der Titel des Filmes (Films)” (the title of the film)

The question word in the genitive is wessen (whose):

,,Wessen Buch hast du?” (Whose book do you have?)

A common error made even by native-speakers of German is to use an apostrophe in possessive forms (just like in English). For instance, they will often write “Maria’s Haus” instead of the correct form, “Marias Haus”.


The genitive is also used in some idiomatic or formulaic expressions (which are not usually translated into English with “of”).

 Idiomatic or Formulaic Expressions
Deutsch Englisch
eines Tages one day, some day
eines Nachts one night (note irreg. genitive form)
eines kelten Winters one cold winter
erster Klasse fahren to travel in first class
letzten Endes when all is said and done
meines Wissens to my knowledge
meines Erachtens in my opinion/view


Some German prepositions are governed by the genitive case.

,,Während der Woche arbeiten wir.” (During the week we work.)

,,Trotz des Wetters fahren wir heute nach Hause.” (In spite of the weather we’re driving home today.)

Genitive Prepositions
Deutsch Englisch
anstatt instead of
außerhalb outside of
innerhalb inside of
trotz despite, in spite of
während during, in the course of
wegen because of
angesichts in view of
beiderseits on both sides of
diesseits this side of
jenseits on the other side of
laut according to


  1. The genitive prepositions listed above are often used with the dative in spoken German, particularly in certain regions:

,,trotz dem Wetter” (in spite of the weather)

,,während der Woche” (during the week) (same as genitive)

,,wegen den Kosten ” (because of the costs)


The genitive ending is omitted with:

  • Many foreign words:

,,des Atlas” (Atlas)

,,des Euro(s)” (the euro)

  • Most foreign geographical names:

,,des High Point” (of High Point)

,,die Berge des Himalaja(s)” (the Himalayan mountains)

  • Days of the week, months:

,,des Montag” (of monday)

,,des Mai/Maies/Maien” (of May)

,,des Januar” (of January)

  • Names with titles (ending on title only):

,,des Professors Schmidt” (of Professor Schmidt)

,,des Herrn Maier” (of Mr. Maier)


,,des Doktor (Dr.) Müller” (of Doctor (Dr.) Müller) ⇨ “Dr.” is considered part of the name


The genitive is used more in written German than in spoken form. It is usually replaced by a von-phrase (von + dative) or (particulary in Austria and southern Germany) a possessive pronoun phrase:

,,Das Auto von meinem Bruder.” (My brother‘s car.)

,,die/der Maria ihre Freunde.” (Maria‘s friends.)

The genitive is preferred in place of a von-phrase…

  • when it may have a dual or ambiguous meaning:

,,von meinem Vater” (of/from my father) ⇨ von-phrase

,,des Vaters” (of my father) ⇨ genitive

The genitive is often replaced by a von-phrase…

  • to avoid repetition:

,,der Schlüssel von der Tür des Hauses” (the key from the door of the house)

  • to avoid awkward language situations:

,,das Auto von Fritz” (rather than ,,des Fritzchens” or ,,Fritz’ Auto“) (the car of Fritz)

  • in spoken German:

,,der Bruder von Hans” (the brother of Hans)

The genitive MUST be replaced by a von-phrase with…

  • pronouns:

,,jeder von uns” (each of us)

,,ein Onkel von ihr” (an uncle of her)

  • a single noun without an article or declined adjective:

,,ein Geruch von Benzin”  (a smell of gasoline)

,,die Mutter von vier Kindern” (the mother of four children)

  • after ,,viel” or ,,wenig“:

,,viel von dem guten Bier” (much of the good beer)

Das ist alles, Leute!!! (That is all folks!!!) 😀