der Dativ

Hello everyone!!!

I’m back again with new posts and I’m very (VERY) happy about the compliments I’ve been receiving about my blog!!! Thank you very much!! >.<

We need to finish the MGGC… “Marathon of German Grammatical Cases”… (I’m just giving a name to it!) hahahha 😉

So, next step: the dative case.

The dative case is known as the indirect object. The indirect object (dative) is usually the receiver of the direct object (accusative), but some German verbs do not take an accusative object. Unlike the accusative, which only changes in the masculine gender, the dative changes in all genders and in the plural. In addition, the dative is also used after certain dative verbs and with dative prepositions. Click here for more informations.

The question word in the dative case is ,,wem” ([to] whom):

,,Wem hast du das Buch gegeben?” (Whom did you give book?)

NOTES!

  1. Some masculine nouns add an ,,-en” or ,,-n” ending in the dative and in all other cases besides the nominative ⇨ ,,dem/einem Jungen” (the/a boy).
  2.  In the dative, plural nouns add an ,,-en” or ,,-n” if the plural does not already end in ,,-n“, except for plurals ending in ,,-s” ⇨ ,,den/keinen Leuten” (the/no people).

DATIVE PREPOSITIONS

Some German prepositions are governed by the dative case. There are two kinds of dative prepositions: those that are always dative and never anything else and certain “two-way” prepositions that can be either dative or accusative (depending on how they are used).

dativ

Here is a list of the dative-only prepositions.

Dative Prepositions
Deutsch Englisch
aus from, out of
außer except for, besides
bei at, near
gegenüber across from, opposite
mit with, by
nach after, to
seit since (time), for
von by, from
zu at, to

NOTES!

  1. ,,Gegenüber” can go before or after its object.
  2.  The genitive prepositions ,,statt” (instead of), ,,trotz” (in spite of), ,,während” (during) and ,,wegen” (because of) are often used with the dative in spoken German, particularly in certain regions.

The meaning of a two-way preposition often depends on whether it is used with the dative or accusative case.

Two-Way Prepositions
Accusative/Dative
Deutsch Englisch
an at, on, to
auf at, to, on, upon
hinter behind
in in, into
neben beside, near, next to
über about, above, across, over
unter under, among
vor in front of, before; ago (time)
zwischen between

The basic rule for determining whether a two-way preposition should have an object in the accusative or dative case is motion versus location.  The following rule applies only to the so-called “two-way” or “dual” prepositions in German.

  • The accusative occurs when there is motion towards something or to a specific location (,,wohin?“, where to?).

,,Wir gehen ins Kino.“ (ins = in das) (We’re going to the movies/cinema.)

,,Legen Sie das Buch auf den Tisch.” (Put/Lay the book on the table.)

  • The dative occurs when there is no motion at all or random motion going nowhere in particular (,,wo?“, where (at)?).

,,Wir sind im Kino.“ (im = in dem) (We’re at the movies/cinema.)

,,Das Buch liegt auf dem Tisch.“ (The book’s lying on the table.)

Many of these prepositions have another meaning in common everyday idioms and expressions: ,,auf dem Lande” (in the country), ,,um drei Uhr” (at three o’clock), ,,unter uns” (among us), ,,am Mittwoch” (on Wednesday), ,,vor einer Woche” (a week ago), etc. These expressions can be learned as vocabulary without worrying about the grammar involved.

Here are some other dative case examples (the dative word, preposition or expression is in red):

,,Der Polizist gibt dem Fahrer einen Strafzettel.” (The policeman is giving the driver a ticket.)

,,Mit der Bahn fahren wir.” (We’re going by train.)

,,Meiner Meinung nach ist es zu teuer.” (In my opinion it’s too expensive.)

,,Das Hotel ist dem Bahnhof gegenüber.” (The hotel is across from the train station.)

,,Er arbeitet bei einer großen Firma.” (He works at a big company.)

,,Wir verbringen eine Woche am See.” (We’re spending a week at the lake.)

,,Wir machen das mit einem Computer.” (We do that with a computer.)

That is what I’ve learned about dative case today…

Next post (Genitive case) we will finish the “MGGC”!!!

Bye! 😉

der Akkusativ

Hello!

Let’s continue talking about the German grammatical cases… It’s a little boring (I know)… I was trying to delay my studies about it…. buuuut, it is important to know… so, here we go!

Today we will learn about the accusative case (,,der Akkusativ“). The accusative case  is known as the direct object of a sentence. The direct object is the immediate recipient of an action or event. In other words, the direct object functions as the receiver of the action of a transitive verb. In German you can tell that a noun is in the accusative case by the masculine article, which changes from ,,der/ein” to ,,den/einen“. You don’t need to worry about the feminine, neuter or plural, because they don’t change in the accusative case! Click here for more informations.

You can test for a transitive verb by saying it without an object. If it sounds odd, and seems to need an object to sound right, then it is probably a transitive verb. Take a look at the following examples (Both of these phrases answer the implied question “what?”):

,,Ich habe…” (I have…) ⇨ What do you have?

,,Er kaufte…” (He bought…) ⇨ What did he buy?

On the other hand if you do this with an intransitive verb, such as “to sleep”, “to die”, or “to wait”, no direct object completion is needed, because you can’t “sleep”, “die” or “wait” something. Some verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, but the key is to remember that if you have a direct object, you’ll have the accusative case in German.

The question word in the accusative is ,,wen” (whom):

,,Wen hast du gestern gesehen?” (Whom did you see yesterday?)

ACCUSATIVE TIME EXPRESSIONS

The accusative is used in some standard time and distance expressions.

,,Das Hotel liegt einen Kilometer von hier.” (The hotel lies a kilometer from here.)

,,Er verbrachte einen Monat in Paris.” (He spent a month in Paris.)

,,Aschenputtel und der Prinz haben die ganze Nacht getanzt.” (Cinderella and the prince danced  all night.)

ACCUSATIVE PREPOSITIONS

Some German prepositions are governed by the accusative case. There are two kinds of accusative prepositions: those that are always accusative and never anything else and certain “two-way” prepositions that can be either accusative or dative (depending on how they are used).

Here is a list of the accusative-only prepositions.

Accusative Prepositions
Deutsch Englisch
bis until, to, by
durch through, by
entlang along, down
für for
gegen against, for
ohne without
um around, for; at (time)

NOTES!

  1. The accusative preposition ,,entlang“, unlike the others, usually goes after its object.
  2. The German preposition ,,bis” is technically an accusative preposition, but it is almost always used with a second preposition (,,bis zu“, ,,bis auf, etc.) in a different case, or without an article (,,bis April“, ,,bis Montag“, ,,bis Bonn“).

The meaning of a two-way preposition often depends on whether it is used with the accusative or dative case.

Two-Way Prepositions
Accusative/Dative
Deutsch Englisch
an at, on, to
auf at, to, on, upon
hinter behind
in in, into
neben beside, near, next to
über about, above, across, over
unter under, among
vor in front of, before; ago (time)
zwischen between

The basic rule for determining whether a two-way preposition should have an object in the accusative or dative case is motion versus location.  The following rule applies only to the so-called “two-way” or “dual” prepositions in German.

  • The accusative occurs when there is motion towards something or to a specific location (,,wohin?“, where to?).

,,Wir gehen ins Kino.” (ins = in das) (We’re going to the movies/cinema.)

,,Legen Sie das Buch auf den Tisch.” (Put/Lay the book on the table.)

  • The dative occurs when there is no motion at all or random motion going nowhere in particular (,,wo?“, where (at)?).

,,Wir sind im Kino.” (im = in dem) (We’re at the movies/cinema.)

,,Das Buch liegt auf dem Tisch.” (The book’s lying on the table.)

Many of these prepositions have another meaning in common everyday idioms and expressions: ,,auf dem Lande” (in the country), ,,um drei Uhr” (at three o’clock), ,,unter uns” (among us), ,,am Mittwoch” (on Wednesday), ,,vor einer Woche” (a week ago), etc. These expressions can be learned as vocabulary without worrying about the grammar involved.

That is what I’ve learned about accusative case today… if I learn something else, I will let you know!!!!

See you!! 😀

der Nominativ

Helloooo!!!

After a welcome holiday… let’s go back to work, right?!!

Today we are going to learn more about the nominative case, which is nothing more than the subject of the sentence.

In German, every noun (person, place or thing), whether it refers to a pet, a thought, a planet, a tree, a car or a man, has a gender. However, it is the word (,,das Wort”), not the object or concept itself, that has gender. There are three possible genders for German nouns: masculine (,,der“), feminine (,,die“) or neuter (,,das“). The nominative plural of any gender is always ,,die“.

TIP!   The most common gender in German is the masculine, so keep that in mind the next time you’re guessing.

In the examples below, the nominative word or expression is in red:

Der Tisch ist toll. The table is great.
Das ist ein Bild. This is a picture.
Die Tiefkühlkost ist da hinten. The frozen food is over there.
Das ist eine gute idee. That’s a good idea.
Das sind keine Sonderangebote. The are currently no special offers.
Der Hund beißt den Mann. The dog bites the man.
Dieser Gedanke ist blöd. This thought is stupid.
Meine Mutter ist Architektin.1 My mother is an architect.
1 The nominative case can also be found in the predicate, as in the last example. The verb “is” acts like an equal sign (my mother = architect). But the nominative is most often the subject of a sentence.

Take a look at the following mindmap:

Nominative Mindmap

Nominative Mindmap

That’s all for today!!! See ya!!! \o/

die vier deutschen Fällen

Hi everyone!!!

As I’ve been promissed, today I will start talking about the four German grammatical cases… finally!!! hahaha

The German grammatical cases are:

  1. ,,Nominativ“: It is simply the subject of the sentence.
  2. ,,Akkusativ“: It is the direct object of the sentence. This is the case governed by most verbs and prepositions.
  3. ,,Dativ“: The words are declined when they have indirect object function. A smaller number of verbs and prepositions govern the dative.
  4. ,,Genitiv“: It is essentially the case of possession.

English cases are only apparent with pronouns, not with nouns, as in German. When “he” changes to “him” in English, that’s exactly the same thing that happens when er changes to ihn in German (and der changes to den). This allows German to have more flexibility in word order, for example:

,,Der Hund beißt den Mann.” (“The dog bites the man.”)
,,Den Mann beißt der Hund.” (“The dog bites the man.”)
,,Beißt der Hund den Mann?” (“Is the dog biting the man?”)
,,Beißt den Mann der Hund?” (“Is the dog biting the man?”)

In German the word order can be changed for emphasis, without altering the basic meaning. But if you say “Man bites dog” in English, rather than “Dog bites man”, you change the meaning. Because English does not have the same case markers (der/den), it must depend on word order.

Definite Articles (the)
Fall
Case
Männlich
masculine
Weiblich
feminine
Sächlich
neuter
Mehrzahl
plural
Nom der die das die
Akk den die das die
Dat dem der dem den
Gen des der des der
Indefinite Articles (a/an)
Fall
Case
Männlich
masculine
Weiblich
feminine
Sächlich
neuter
Mehrzahl
plural
Nom (k)ein (k)eine (k)ein keine*
Akk (k)einen (k)eine (k)ein keine*
Dat (k)einem (k)einer (k)einem keine*
Gen (k)eines (k)einer (k)eines keine*

NOTE!

  1. ,,Keine” is the negative of ,,eine“, which has no plural form. But ,,keine” (no/none) can be used in the plural.
Demonstrative Pronouns (der, die, denen)
Fall
Case
Männlich
masculine
Weiblich
feminine
Sächlich
neuter
Mehrzahl
plural
Nom der
that one
die
that one
das
that one
die
these
Akk den
that one
die
that one
das
that one
die
those
Dat dem
(to) that
der
(to) that
dem
(to) that
denen
(to) them
Gen dessen
of that
deren
of that
dessen
of that
deren
of them

NOTE!

  1. When the definite articles are used as demonstrative pronouns, only the dative plural and genitive forms are different from the normal definite articles.
Personal Pronouns
   Nom  Akk  Dat  Gen
 1. Person
sing.
ich
I
 mich
me
 mir
(to) me
mein
my
 2. Person
sing.
 du
you
 dich
you
 dir
(to) you
dein
your
 3. Person
sing.
er
he
ihn
him
ihm
(to) him
sein
his
 3. Person
sing.
 sie
she
sie
her
ihr
(to) her
ihr
her
 3. Person
sing.
 es
it
 es
it
 ihm
(to) it
sein
its
 1. Person
plur.
 wir
we
 uns
us
 uns
(to) us
unser
our
 2. Person
plur.
ihr
you
 euch
you
euch
(to) you
euer
your
 2. Person
formal
 Sie Sie
you
Ihnen
(to) you
 Ihr
your
 3. Person
plur.
sie
they
sie
them
ihnen
(to) them
 ihre
their

NOTES!

  1. The possessive pronoun forms shown here do not indicate the various additional case endings (genitive, dative, etc.) they might have in a typical sentence in various situations (i.e., ,,seiner“, ,,ihres“, etc.).
  2. ,,Sie” is the same in the singular and plural. It is always capitalized in all of its forms.
Interrogative “who”
Fall
Case
Wer?
who?
Nom wer
Akk wen
whom
Dat wem
(to) whom
Gen wessen
whose

NOTES!

  1. ,,Wer” (who) has no plural form in German or English.
  2. The interrogative ,,was” (what) is the same in the nominative and accusative cases. It has no dative or genitive forms and is related to ,,das” and ,,es“. Like ,,wer“, ,,was” has no plural form in German or English.

Examples:

,,Er (der Hund) beißt den Mann.” (“He (the dog) bites the man.”)
,,Ihn (den Mann) hat der Hund gebissen.” (“The dog bit him (the man).”)
,,Wen hat er gebissen?” (“Whom did he bite?”)
,,Wer ist das?” (“Who is that?”)
,,Du hast mich doch gesehen?” (“You did see me (didn’t you)?”)
,,Die hat keine Ahnung.” (“She/That one has no idea.”)

For more about each case, see the next posts!!!! 😉

Willkommen Frühling

Spring started officially today in Germany!!!

When I arrived in Germany last year, it was spring, but it was so cold… that it seemed winter to me!!! hahahaha… I don’t like when it is too hot or too cold (even if I think I’ve never felt really cold)… I think spring is the most confortable and beautiful season, because it is not too cold or too hot and the gardens are full of flowers… I love flowers!!!!

,,Der Frühling ist meine Lieblingsjahreszeit!!!” (“Spring is my favorite season!!!”)

So, today is a good day to learn about the months, how to say a calendar date and the seasons in German…

  • ,,die Monate” (the months)

Januar – January

Februar – February

März – March

April – April

Mai – May

Juni – June

Juli – July

August – August

September – September

Oktober – October

November – November

Dezember – December

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  1. The months in German are all masculine gender (der).
  2. To say “in May” or “in November” you use the prepositional phrase ,,im Mai” or ,,im November“. (The word ,,im” is a contraction of ,,in” and ,,dem“, the dative form of ,,der“).
  3. To give a date, such as “on March 20th”, you use ,,am” (as with the days) and the ordinal number (5th, 20th): ,,am zwanzigsten März“, usually written ,,am 20. März“. The period after the number represents the –ten ending on the number and is the same as the -th, -rd, or -nd ending used for English ordinal numbers.
  4. Note that numbered dates in German are always written in the order of day, month, year (rather than month, day, year).

Ordinal Numbers (Dates)

Englisch

Deutsch

the first – on the first/1st der erste – am ersten/1.
the second – on the second/2nd der zweite – am zweiten/2.
the third – on the third/3rd der dritte – am dritten/3.
the fourth – on the fourth/4th der vierte – am vierten/4.
the fifth – on the fifth/5th der fünfte – am fünften/5.
the sixth – on the sixth/6th der sechste – am sechsten/6.
the seventh – on the seventh/7th der siebte – am siebte/7.
the eighth – on the eighth/8th der achte – am achten/8.
the ninth – on the ninth/9th der neunte – am neunte/9.
the tenth – on the tenth/10th der zehnte – am zehnten/10.
the eleventh – on the eleventh/11th der elfte – am elften/11.
the twelfth – on the twelfth/12th der zwölfte – am zwölften/12.
the thirteenth – on the thirteenth/13th der dreizehnte – am dreizehnten/13.
the fourteenth – on the fourteenth/14th der vierzehnte – am vierzehnten/14.
the fifteenth – on the fifteenth/15th der fünfzehnte – am fünfzehnten/15.
the sixteenth – on the sixteenth/16th der sechzehnte – am sechzehnten/16.
the seventeenth – on the seventeenth/17th der siebzehnte – am siebzehnten/17.
the eighteenth – on the eighteenth/18th der achtzehnte – am achtzehnten/18.
the nineteenth – on the nineteenth/19th der neunzehnte – am neunzehnten/19.
the twentieth – on the twentieth/20th der zwanzigste – am zwanzigsten/20.
the twenty-first – on the twenty-first/21st der einundzwanzigste –
am einundzwanzigsten/21.
the twenty-second – on the twenty-second/22nd der zweiundzwanzigste – am zweiundzwanzigsten/22.
the twenty-third – on the twenty-third/23rd der dreiundzwanzigste – am dreiundzwanzigsten/23.
the twenty-fourth – on the twenty-fourth/24th der vierundzwanzigste – am vierundzwanzigsten/24.
the twenty-fifth – the twenty-fifth/25th der fünfundzwanzigste – am fünfundzwanzigsten/25.
the twenty-sixth – on the twenty-sixth/26th der sechsundzwanzigste – am sechsundzwanzigsten/26.
the twenty-seventh – on the twenty-seventh/27th der siebenundzwanzigste – am siebenundzwanzigsten/27.
the twenty-eighth – on the twenty-eighth/28th der achtundzwanzigste – am achtundzwanzigste/28.
the twenty-ninth – on the twenty-ninth/29th der neunfundzwanzigste – am neunfundzwanzigsten/29.
the thirtieth – on the thirtieth/30th der dreißigste – am dreißigsten/30.
the thirty-first –
on the thirty-first/31st
der einunddreißigste –
am einunddreißigsten/31.

In most cases, the ordinal number is the cardinal number with a –te or –ten ending.

Some German numbers have irregular ordinals: one/first (eins/erste) or three/third (drei/dritte).

  • ,,die Jahreszeiten” (the seasons)

Finally, let’s take a look at the different seasons…

Seasons

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  1. The seasons are all masculine gender (der), except for ,,das Frühjahr” (another word for spring).
  2. The months for each season above are, of course, for the northern hemisphere where Germany lie.
  3. ,,Sommerliche Temperaturen” = “summerlike/summery temperatures”.
  4. In some cases, the noun form is used as a prefix, as in ,,die Winterkleidung” (“winter clothing”) or ,,die Sommermonate” (“the summer months”).
  5. The prepositional phrase ,,im” (,,in dem“) is used for all the seasons when you want to say, for instance, “in (the) spring” (,,im Frühling“). Just like for the months.

Listening source: Learning Lounge ® – http://www.learnalanguage.com

Häuser berühmter Sitcoms

The Spanish artist Iñaki Aliste Lizarralde had a super creative idea: he created super elaborate drawings depicting the interior and architectural design of the homes of several famous series…

I always thought about doing that but never put into practice (the drawings were only made in my mind)… sometimes, when I’m walking down the street and I see an interesting building, I start to imagine how it is inside… I love to draw houses plans since I was a kid, it is a kind of hobby!!! 😀

Well, this topic inspired me to write today’s post: ,,Häuser” (houses). So, let’s start…

,,Wie heißen die Zimmer?” (What are the rooms?)

Take a look at the floor plan (,,der Grundriss“):

Imagem

  1. ,,das Wohnzimmer” (living room)
  2. ,,das Esszimmer” (dining room)
  3. ,,das Schlafzimmer” (bedroom)
  4. ,,das Badezimmer” (bathroom)
  5. ,,das Kindezimmer” (child room)
  6. ,,die Küche” (kitchen)
  7. ,,der Flur” (hall)
  8. ,,der Balkon” (balcony)

Now, can you describe the floor plan from “Chandler and Joey”, “Monica and Rachel”, “Sheldon and Leonard”, “Penny” and “Dexter”?

Imagem

,,Chandler und Joey Wohnung hat zwei Schlafzimmer, eine Küche, ein Wohnzimmer, ein Esszimer und ein Badzimmer.” (“bedrooms, a kitchen, a living room, a dining room and a bathroom.”)

,,Monica und Rachel hat zwei Schlafzimmer, eine Küche, ein Wohnzimmer, ein Esszimer, ein Badzimmer und einen Balkon.” (“Monica and Rachel’s apartment has two bedrooms, a kitchen, a living room, a dining room, a bathroom and a balcony.”)

Imagem

,,Penny Wohnung hat ein Schlafzimmer, eine Küche, ein Wohnzimmer, ein Esszimer und ein Badzimmer. Ihre Wohnung ist klein.” (“Penny’s apartment has a bedroom, a kitchen, a living room, a dining room and a bathroom. Her apartment is small.”)

,,Sheldon und Leonard Wohnung hat zwei Schlafzimmer, eine Küche, ein Wohnzimmer, ein Esszimer und ein Badzimmer.” (“Sheldon and Leonard’s apartment has two bedrooms, a kitchen, a living room, a dining room and a bathroom.”)

Imagem

,,Dexter Wohnung hat ein Schlafzimmer, eine Küche, ein Wohnzimmer, ein Esszimer und ein Badzimmer. Seine Wohnung ist groß und hell.” (“Dexter’s apartment has a bedroom, a kitchen, a living room, a dining room and a bathroom. His apartment is big and bright.”)

Have you noticed that all these sitcoms’ apartments have typical American kitchens, which is basically a type of fitted kitchens that have an opening to the dining room or even the living room?!

  • Here are some grammatical stuff we’ve learned in this post:

artikel im akkusativ

Possessiveartikel im Nominativ

I’ll talk more about ,,Nominativ” and ,,Akkusativ” latter!!! 😉