die Adjektivdeklination – Typ 3

Hi everyone,

Let’s continue talking about adjective endings…

To review the Strong inflexion, click here: Starke Deklination.

To review the Mixed inflexion, click here: Gemischte Deklination.

Typ 3 : Schwasche Deklination

Weak inflection, or ,,Schwasche Deklination“, is used:

  • After the definite article
  • After ,,derselb-” (the same), ,,derjenig-” (the one)
  • After ,,dies-” (this), ,,jen-” (that), ,,jeglich-” (any), ,,jed-” (every), which decline like the definite article.
  • After ,,manch-” (some), ,,solch-“ (such), ,,welch-” (which), which decline like definite article.
  • After ,,mir”, ,,dir“, ,,ihm
  • After ,,arm” (meagre), ,,alt” (old), ,,all” (all)
Weak Inflexion
Männlich
masculine
Weiblich
feminine
Sächlich
neuter
Mehrzahl
plural
 Nominativ -e -e -e -en
 Akkusativ -en -e -e -en
 Dativ -en -en -en -en
Genitiv  -en -en -en -en

The adjective endings rule with the definite article (derdiedas) or the so-called der-words (dieserjeder, etc.) is simple:

  1. The adjective endings in the nominative is always ,,-e” (except for the plural that is always ,,-en” in all situations!).
  2. The adjective endings in the  accusative identical to those in the nominative case, except for the masculine gender (der/den).
  3. The adjective endings in the dative and genitive is ALWAYS –en!

Adjektivdeklination typ 3

That is all I’ve learned about adjective endings by now!!!! So, keep practicing and wait for new posts!! 😀

die Adjektivdeklination – Typ 2

Hi everyone, Let’s continue talking about adjective endings… To review the Strong inflexion, click here: Starke Deklination.

Typ 2 : Gemischte Deklination

Mixed inflection, or ,,Gemischte Deklination“, is used:

  • After the indefinite article ,,ein-“, ,,kein-
  • After the possessive determiners in singular.
Mixed Inflexion
Männlich masculine Weiblich feminine Sächlich neuter Mehrzahl plural
 Nominativ -er -e -es -en*1
 Akkusativ -en -e -es -en*1
 Dativ -en -en -en -en*1
Genitiv  -en -en -en -en*1

*1 kein/e/n is used to show the plural because you can say “no shoes” but not “a shoes”! With ein-words (ein, deinkeine, etc.), the adjective must reflect the gender of the noun that follows.

  1. The adjective endings in the nominative ,,-er“, ,,-e” and ,,-es” correspond to the articles ,,der“, ,,die“, and ,,das” respectively.
  2. The adjective endings in the  accusative ,,-en“, ,,-e” and ,,-es” correspond to the articles ,,den“, ,,die“, and ,,das” respectively.
  3. The adjective endings in the dative and genitive is ALWAYS –en!

Adjektivdeklination typ 2 I will talk more about the weak inflexion in the next post. As I said previously, keep practicing German gender nouns and cases because it is very important!!! 😉

die Adjektivdeklination – Typ 1

Hallo!!

Today I’m going to start talking about German adjectives. In German an adjective is a word that usually go in front of a noun or pronoun they modify, giving more information about their definition.

,,der gute Mann” (the good man)

,,das große Auto” (the big car)

,,die schöne Dame” (the pretty lady)

A German adjective in front of a noun has to have an ending (,,Adjektivdeklination“), which depends on several factors, including gender (der, die, das), case (nominativeaccusativedative) and the type of declension (“strong”, “mixed” or “weak”).

Several adjectives take no ending at all:

  • Singular limiting adjectives: wenig, etwas, genug, and viel
  • The plural limiting phrase ‘ein Paar’
  • When the adjective come after the verb (predicate adjective)

,,Das Haus ist groß.” (The house is large.)

As we already know when to use the German cases, let’s talk about the type of declension:

Typ 1 : Starke Deklination

Strong Inflexion, or ,,Starke Deklination“, is used:

  • When no article is used
  • After ,,etwas” (some; somewhat), ,,mehr” (more), ,,nichts” (nothing)
  • After ,,wenig-” (few), ,,viel-” (much; many), ,,mehrer-” (several; many), ,,all-” (all), which also have strong adjective inflection
  • After personal pronouns other than ,,mir“, ,,dir“, ,,ihm
  • After number adjectives with no endings
Strong Inflexion
Männlich
masculine
Weiblich
feminine
Sächlich
neuter
Mehrzahl
plural
 Nominativ -er -e -es -e
 Akkusativ -en -e -es -e
 Dativ -em -er -em -en
Genitiv  -en -er -en -er

Adjektivdeklination typ 1

I will talk more about the other types of declension in the next posts… keep practicing German gender nouns and cases! 😉

See ya!!

die Farben

Grüezi!!! (So sagen viele Leute in Schweiz für “Guten Tag!”)

Today I will post to you some new vocabulary: ,,die Farben” (colors)

The German words for colors usually function as adjectives, but, in certain situations, colors can also be nouns and are thus capitalized.

Color

Farbe

 red
 rot
 pink  rosa
 blue  blau
 light blue  hell-blau
 dark blue  dunkel blau
 green  grün
 yellow  gelb
 orange  orange
 brown  braun
 beige  beige
 violet  violett
 lilac  lila
 white  weiß
 black  schwarz
 gray  grau
 turquoise  türkis
 silver  silber
 gold  gold

NOTE! Light or dark colors are preceded by ,,hell-” (light) or ,,dunkel-” (dark)

For you to practice, here is a memory game I found on http://german.about.com. Have fun!! 😉

Adé!!! (So sagen viele Leute in Schweiz für “Tchüss!”)

Städte – Länder – Sprachen

Hiiiii,

,,Wie geht es euch?” You already know how to answer to this question!

Today we will learn about something else: ,,die Städte” (the cities),  ,,die Länder” (the countries) and ,,die Sprachen” (the languages).

TIP!    It is not mandatory, but it would be better you if you remember the conjugation of some regular verbs and modal verbs!

Weltkarte

Weltkarte

Here are some Nations of the World:

English

Deutsch

Sprache/Language

 Argentina  Argentinien  Spanisch/Spanish
 Belgium  Belgien  Flämisch/Flemish
 Französisch/French
 Bolivia  Bolivien  Spanisch/Spanish
 Brazil  Brasilien  Portugiesisch/Portuguese
 Canada  Kanada  Englisch/English
 Französisch/French
 Chile  Chile  Spanisch/Spanish
 China  China  Chinesisch/Chinese
 Czech Republic  Tschechien  Tschechisch/Czech
 Denmark  Dänemark  Dänisch/Danish
 England  England  Englisch/English
 France  Frankreich  Französisch/French
 Germany  Deutschland  Deutsch/German
 Holland  Holland  Holländisch/Dutch
 India  Indien  Englisch/English
 Italia  Italien  Italienisch/Italian
 Iran  Iran  Iranisch/Iranian
 Japan  Japan  Japanisch/Japanese
 Mexico  Mexiko  Spanisch/Spanish
 Morocco  Marroko  Arabisch/Arabic
 Französisch/French
 Netherlands  Niederlande  Niederländisch/Dutch
 New Zealand  Neuseeland  Englisch/English
 North Korea  Nordkorea  Koreanisch/Korean
 Norwai  Norwegen  Norwegisch/Norwegian
 Poland  Polen  Polnisch/Polish
 Portugal  Portugal  Portugiesisch/Portuguese
 Russia  Russland  Russisch/Russian
 Scotland  Schottland  Schottisch/Scottish
 Slovakia  Slowakien Slowakisch/Slovak
 South Africa  Südafrika  Afrikaans/Afrikaans
 Englisch/English
 South Korea  Süddkorea  Koreanisch/Korean
 Spain  Spanien  Spanisch/Spanish
 Sweden  Schweden  Schwedisch/Swedish
 Switzerland  Schweiz  Deutsch/German
 Französisch/French
 Turkey  Türkei  Türkisch/Turkish
 United States of America/USA  die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika/die USA  Englisch/English

,,Woher kommst du?” (Where do you come from?)

,,Ich komme aus” (I come from…)

,,Wo wohnen Sie?” (Where do you live?)

,,Ich wohne in” (I live in…)

,,Ich wohne jetzt in” (Now I live in…)

,,Wohnt sie jetzt in Portugal?”  (Does she live now in Portugal?)

,,Ja, in Coimbra.” (Yes, in Coimbra.)

NOTES!

  1. die USA/aus den USA/ in den USA
  2. die Niederlande/ aus den Niederlanden/ in den Niederlanden
  3. die Schweiz/ aus der Schweiz/ in der Schweiz
  4. die Türkei/ aus der Türkei/ in der Türkei
  5. die Slowakei/ aus der Slowakei/ in der Slowakei
  6. der Iran/ aus dem Iran/ im Iran

Die geografische Lage angeben

Windrose

Windrose

Here are some examples that explain how to ask and answer questions about the geographical location of countries, states and cities:

  • ,,Wo ist denn das?” (Where is that?)
,,Das ist in…” (This is in …)
  • ,,Das kenne ich nicht, wo liegt das?” (I do not know, where is that?)
,,Das liegt im Südosten von Österreich.” (It is located in the southeast of Austria.)
,,Das liegt südlich von Wien.” (It is located south of Vienna.)
  • ,,Wo ist das? In welchem Land ist das?” (Where is it? In which country is it?)
,,Aachen liegt in Westdeutschland.” (Aachen is located in West Germany.)
,,Aachen liegt im Westen von Deutschland.” (Aachen is located in the west of Germany.)
,,Aachen liegt westlich von Köln.” (Aachen is located west of Cologne.)
  • ,,Wo liegt denn das?” (Where is that?)
,,Wien liegt im Nordosten von Österreich.” (Vienna is located in northeastern Austria.)
,,Wien liegt östlich von Linz.” (Vienna is located east of Linz.)
  • ,,Wo liegt den Innsbruck?” (Where is Innsbruck?)
,,Südlich von München.” (Südlich von München.)

Über Sprachen sprechen

Examples of how to ask:

  1. ,,Sprechen Sie…?” (formal)/,,Sprichst du…?” (informal) (Do you speak…?)
  2. ,,Was sprechen Sie?” (formal)/ Was sprichst du?” (informal) (What do you speak?)
  3. ,,Welche Sprache(n) sprechen Sie?” (What language(s) do you speak?)
  4. ,,Welche sprache(n) spricht man in…?” (What language (s) is spoken in …?)
  5. ,,Was spricht man in…?” (What is spoken in …?)

Examples of how to answer:

  1. ,,Ich spreche…” (I speak…)
  2. ,,Bei uns spricht man…” (For us is spoken…)
  3. ,,Bei uns in… spricht man…” (For us in… is spoken…)
  4. ,,Dort spricht man…” (Here we speak …)
  5. ,,Ich kann… sprechen.” (I can … speak.)
  6. ,,Ich spreche etwas Englisch und…” (I speak some English and …)

Ich-Texte schreiben

Ich heisse Aline und komme aus Brasilien. Dort spricht man Portugiesisch. Ich spreche auch Englisch und Deutsch. Ich wohne jetzt in Rio de Janeiro. Das liegt in Sudösten von Brasilien.

Want to learn more? Check the post W-Fragen!

I hope you liked it.

See ya!! 😀

Hallo! Wie geht’s?

Hallo!!! Wie geht es Ihnen?

How are you? Can you answer this question in German? No? So, this post will help you a lot! 😉

First of all, here are some words people use to say how they are feeling:

+++ ,,sehr gut”  very good
+++ ,,ausgeseichnet” excellent
+++ ,,prima” great
+ ,,gut” good
+- ,,es geht”  (it’s) OK
,,nicht gut” not (so) good
– – – ,,schlecht”  bad
– – – ,,scheußlich” terrible

mood swings

Stimmung

FRAGEN

Examples of questions to ask people how they are:

,,Wie geht es Ihnem?” (How are you?)

,,Wie geht’s?” (How are you?) – less formal

,,Und Ihnen?” (And (how are) you?) – formal

,,Und dir?’’  (And you?) – informal

,,Und euch?” (And you?) – informal plural

ANTWORTEN

Examples of answers to say how you are feeling:

,,Mir geht’s heute wirklich sehr gut.”  (Today I’m really very good.)

,,Mir geht es gut./Es geht mir gut.” (I am fine.)

,,Mir geht’s gut.” (I’m fine.)

EXAMPLES

Take a look at the following dialog examples:

Dialog 1

Karin: Hallo Werner, wie geht’s? (Hello Werner, how are you?)

Werner: Danke, gut. Und dir? (Thank you, good. And you?)

Karin: Na ja, nicht gut. Ich bin krank. (Oh, not so good. I am sick.)

Werner: Das tut mir Leid. (I am sorry about that.)

Dialog 2

Tobias: Guten Morgen, Eva, Wie geht es ihnen heute? (Good morning, Eva, how are you today?)

Eva: Mir geht’s wirklich sehr gut! Und Ihnen? (I’m really good! And you?)

Tobias: Prima! (Great!)

Eva: Das freut mich! (I am pleased.)

Dialog 3

Frau Beckmann: Guten Tag, Herr Raab! Wie geht es Ihnen? (Good afternoon, Mr. Haab! How are you?)

Herr Raab: Nicht schlecht, Frau Beckmann. Und Ihnen? (Not bad, Mrs. Beckmann. And you?)

Frau Beckmann: Ach, es geht. (Oh, OK.)

Mir geht es wirklich sehr gut heute!! Und euch?

See you guys…

der Genitiv

Hi!!!

I’m glad to communicate that we are at the final step of our “Marathon of German Grammatical Cases” (MGGC)!!!! LOL

The genitive case in German shows possession, is used with some verb idioms and with the genitive prepositions. In English, it is expressed by the possessive “of” or an apostrophe-s (‘s). The genitive only has two forms: des/eines (masculine and neuter) or der/einer (feminine and plural).  Click here for more informations.

der Genitiv - Charlie Brown

NOTES!

  1. Some masculine nouns add an –en or –n ending in the genitive and in all other cases besides the nominative. ⇨ ,,des Architekten” (architect)
  2. Feminine and plural nouns do not add an ending in the genitive.
  3. The adjectives almost always have an –en ending. ⇨ ,,des neuen Autos” (the new car)
  4. The genitive form of most neuter and masculine nouns in German have either –es or –s ending (almost all nouns ending in sssßschz or tz must end with -es in the genitive). ⇨ ,,das Auto meines Bruders” (my brother’s car) or ,,der Titel des Filmes (Films)” (the title of the film)

The question word in the genitive is wessen (whose):

,,Wessen Buch hast du?” (Whose book do you have?)

A common error made even by native-speakers of German is to use an apostrophe in possessive forms (just like in English). For instance, they will often write “Maria’s Haus” instead of the correct form, “Marias Haus”.

GENITIVE EXPRESSIONS

The genitive is also used in some idiomatic or formulaic expressions (which are not usually translated into English with “of”).

 Idiomatic or Formulaic Expressions
Deutsch Englisch
eines Tages one day, some day
eines Nachts one night (note irreg. genitive form)
eines kelten Winters one cold winter
erster Klasse fahren to travel in first class
letzten Endes when all is said and done
meines Wissens to my knowledge
meines Erachtens in my opinion/view

GENITIVE PREPOSITIONS

Some German prepositions are governed by the genitive case.

,,Während der Woche arbeiten wir.” (During the week we work.)

,,Trotz des Wetters fahren wir heute nach Hause.” (In spite of the weather we’re driving home today.)

Genitive Prepositions
Deutsch Englisch
anstatt instead of
außerhalb outside of
innerhalb inside of
trotz despite, in spite of
während during, in the course of
wegen because of
angesichts in view of
beiderseits on both sides of
diesseits this side of
jenseits on the other side of
laut according to

NOTES!

  1. The genitive prepositions listed above are often used with the dative in spoken German, particularly in certain regions:

,,trotz dem Wetter” (in spite of the weather)

,,während der Woche” (during the week) (same as genitive)

,,wegen den Kosten ” (because of the costs)

NO GENITIVE ENDING

The genitive ending is omitted with:

  • Many foreign words:

,,des Atlas” (Atlas)

,,des Euro(s)” (the euro)

  • Most foreign geographical names:

,,des High Point” (of High Point)

,,die Berge des Himalaja(s)” (the Himalayan mountains)

  • Days of the week, months:

,,des Montag” (of monday)

,,des Mai/Maies/Maien” (of May)

,,des Januar” (of January)

  • Names with titles (ending on title only):

,,des Professors Schmidt” (of Professor Schmidt)

,,des Herrn Maier” (of Mr. Maier)

But…

,,des Doktor (Dr.) Müller” (of Doctor (Dr.) Müller) ⇨ “Dr.” is considered part of the name

USING ,,VON” INSTEAD OF THE GENITIVE

The genitive is used more in written German than in spoken form. It is usually replaced by a von-phrase (von + dative) or (particulary in Austria and southern Germany) a possessive pronoun phrase:

,,Das Auto von meinem Bruder.” (My brother‘s car.)

,,die/der Maria ihre Freunde.” (Maria‘s friends.)

The genitive is preferred in place of a von-phrase…

  • when it may have a dual or ambiguous meaning:

,,von meinem Vater” (of/from my father) ⇨ von-phrase

,,des Vaters” (of my father) ⇨ genitive

The genitive is often replaced by a von-phrase…

  • to avoid repetition:

,,der Schlüssel von der Tür des Hauses” (the key from the door of the house)

  • to avoid awkward language situations:

,,das Auto von Fritz” (rather than ,,des Fritzchens” or ,,Fritz’ Auto“) (the car of Fritz)

  • in spoken German:

,,der Bruder von Hans” (the brother of Hans)

The genitive MUST be replaced by a von-phrase with…

  • pronouns:

,,jeder von uns” (each of us)

,,ein Onkel von ihr” (an uncle of her)

  • a single noun without an article or declined adjective:

,,ein Geruch von Benzin”  (a smell of gasoline)

,,die Mutter von vier Kindern” (the mother of four children)

  • after ,,viel” or ,,wenig“:

,,viel von dem guten Bier” (much of the good beer)

Das ist alles, Leute!!! (That is all folks!!!) 😀

der Dativ

Hello everyone!!!

I’m back again with new posts and I’m very (VERY) happy about the compliments I’ve been receiving about my blog!!! Thank you very much!! >.<

We need to finish the MGGC… “Marathon of German Grammatical Cases”… (I’m just giving a name to it!) hahahha 😉

So, next step: the dative case.

The dative case is known as the indirect object. The indirect object (dative) is usually the receiver of the direct object (accusative), but some German verbs do not take an accusative object. Unlike the accusative, which only changes in the masculine gender, the dative changes in all genders and in the plural. In addition, the dative is also used after certain dative verbs and with dative prepositions. Click here for more informations.

The question word in the dative case is ,,wem” ([to] whom):

,,Wem hast du das Buch gegeben?” (Whom did you give book?)

NOTES!

  1. Some masculine nouns add an ,,-en” or ,,-n” ending in the dative and in all other cases besides the nominative ⇨ ,,dem/einem Jungen” (the/a boy).
  2.  In the dative, plural nouns add an ,,-en” or ,,-n” if the plural does not already end in ,,-n“, except for plurals ending in ,,-s” ⇨ ,,den/keinen Leuten” (the/no people).

DATIVE PREPOSITIONS

Some German prepositions are governed by the dative case. There are two kinds of dative prepositions: those that are always dative and never anything else and certain “two-way” prepositions that can be either dative or accusative (depending on how they are used).

dativ

Here is a list of the dative-only prepositions.

Dative Prepositions
Deutsch Englisch
aus from, out of
außer except for, besides
bei at, near
gegenüber across from, opposite
mit with, by
nach after, to
seit since (time), for
von by, from
zu at, to

NOTES!

  1. ,,Gegenüber” can go before or after its object.
  2.  The genitive prepositions ,,statt” (instead of), ,,trotz” (in spite of), ,,während” (during) and ,,wegen” (because of) are often used with the dative in spoken German, particularly in certain regions.

The meaning of a two-way preposition often depends on whether it is used with the dative or accusative case.

Two-Way Prepositions
Accusative/Dative
Deutsch Englisch
an at, on, to
auf at, to, on, upon
hinter behind
in in, into
neben beside, near, next to
über about, above, across, over
unter under, among
vor in front of, before; ago (time)
zwischen between

The basic rule for determining whether a two-way preposition should have an object in the accusative or dative case is motion versus location.  The following rule applies only to the so-called “two-way” or “dual” prepositions in German.

  • The accusative occurs when there is motion towards something or to a specific location (,,wohin?“, where to?).

,,Wir gehen ins Kino.“ (ins = in das) (We’re going to the movies/cinema.)

,,Legen Sie das Buch auf den Tisch.” (Put/Lay the book on the table.)

  • The dative occurs when there is no motion at all or random motion going nowhere in particular (,,wo?“, where (at)?).

,,Wir sind im Kino.“ (im = in dem) (We’re at the movies/cinema.)

,,Das Buch liegt auf dem Tisch.“ (The book’s lying on the table.)

Many of these prepositions have another meaning in common everyday idioms and expressions: ,,auf dem Lande” (in the country), ,,um drei Uhr” (at three o’clock), ,,unter uns” (among us), ,,am Mittwoch” (on Wednesday), ,,vor einer Woche” (a week ago), etc. These expressions can be learned as vocabulary without worrying about the grammar involved.

Here are some other dative case examples (the dative word, preposition or expression is in red):

,,Der Polizist gibt dem Fahrer einen Strafzettel.” (The policeman is giving the driver a ticket.)

,,Mit der Bahn fahren wir.” (We’re going by train.)

,,Meiner Meinung nach ist es zu teuer.” (In my opinion it’s too expensive.)

,,Das Hotel ist dem Bahnhof gegenüber.” (The hotel is across from the train station.)

,,Er arbeitet bei einer großen Firma.” (He works at a big company.)

,,Wir verbringen eine Woche am See.” (We’re spending a week at the lake.)

,,Wir machen das mit einem Computer.” (We do that with a computer.)

That is what I’ve learned about dative case today…

Next post (Genitive case) we will finish the “MGGC”!!!

Bye! 😉

der Akkusativ

Hello!

Let’s continue talking about the German grammatical cases… It’s a little boring (I know)… I was trying to delay my studies about it…. buuuut, it is important to know… so, here we go!

Today we will learn about the accusative case (,,der Akkusativ“). The accusative case  is known as the direct object of a sentence. The direct object is the immediate recipient of an action or event. In other words, the direct object functions as the receiver of the action of a transitive verb. In German you can tell that a noun is in the accusative case by the masculine article, which changes from ,,der/ein” to ,,den/einen“. You don’t need to worry about the feminine, neuter or plural, because they don’t change in the accusative case! Click here for more informations.

You can test for a transitive verb by saying it without an object. If it sounds odd, and seems to need an object to sound right, then it is probably a transitive verb. Take a look at the following examples (Both of these phrases answer the implied question “what?”):

,,Ich habe…” (I have…) ⇨ What do you have?

,,Er kaufte…” (He bought…) ⇨ What did he buy?

On the other hand if you do this with an intransitive verb, such as “to sleep”, “to die”, or “to wait”, no direct object completion is needed, because you can’t “sleep”, “die” or “wait” something. Some verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, but the key is to remember that if you have a direct object, you’ll have the accusative case in German.

The question word in the accusative is ,,wen” (whom):

,,Wen hast du gestern gesehen?” (Whom did you see yesterday?)

ACCUSATIVE TIME EXPRESSIONS

The accusative is used in some standard time and distance expressions.

,,Das Hotel liegt einen Kilometer von hier.” (The hotel lies a kilometer from here.)

,,Er verbrachte einen Monat in Paris.” (He spent a month in Paris.)

,,Aschenputtel und der Prinz haben die ganze Nacht getanzt.” (Cinderella and the prince danced  all night.)

ACCUSATIVE PREPOSITIONS

Some German prepositions are governed by the accusative case. There are two kinds of accusative prepositions: those that are always accusative and never anything else and certain “two-way” prepositions that can be either accusative or dative (depending on how they are used).

Here is a list of the accusative-only prepositions.

Accusative Prepositions
Deutsch Englisch
bis until, to, by
durch through, by
entlang along, down
für for
gegen against, for
ohne without
um around, for; at (time)

NOTES!

  1. The accusative preposition ,,entlang“, unlike the others, usually goes after its object.
  2. The German preposition ,,bis” is technically an accusative preposition, but it is almost always used with a second preposition (,,bis zu“, ,,bis auf, etc.) in a different case, or without an article (,,bis April“, ,,bis Montag“, ,,bis Bonn“).

The meaning of a two-way preposition often depends on whether it is used with the accusative or dative case.

Two-Way Prepositions
Accusative/Dative
Deutsch Englisch
an at, on, to
auf at, to, on, upon
hinter behind
in in, into
neben beside, near, next to
über about, above, across, over
unter under, among
vor in front of, before; ago (time)
zwischen between

The basic rule for determining whether a two-way preposition should have an object in the accusative or dative case is motion versus location.  The following rule applies only to the so-called “two-way” or “dual” prepositions in German.

  • The accusative occurs when there is motion towards something or to a specific location (,,wohin?“, where to?).

,,Wir gehen ins Kino.” (ins = in das) (We’re going to the movies/cinema.)

,,Legen Sie das Buch auf den Tisch.” (Put/Lay the book on the table.)

  • The dative occurs when there is no motion at all or random motion going nowhere in particular (,,wo?“, where (at)?).

,,Wir sind im Kino.” (im = in dem) (We’re at the movies/cinema.)

,,Das Buch liegt auf dem Tisch.” (The book’s lying on the table.)

Many of these prepositions have another meaning in common everyday idioms and expressions: ,,auf dem Lande” (in the country), ,,um drei Uhr” (at three o’clock), ,,unter uns” (among us), ,,am Mittwoch” (on Wednesday), ,,vor einer Woche” (a week ago), etc. These expressions can be learned as vocabulary without worrying about the grammar involved.

That is what I’ve learned about accusative case today… if I learn something else, I will let you know!!!!

See you!! 😀

der Nominativ

Helloooo!!!

After a welcome holiday… let’s go back to work, right?!!

Today we are going to learn more about the nominative case, which is nothing more than the subject of the sentence.

In German, every noun (person, place or thing), whether it refers to a pet, a thought, a planet, a tree, a car or a man, has a gender. However, it is the word (,,das Wort”), not the object or concept itself, that has gender. There are three possible genders for German nouns: masculine (,,der“), feminine (,,die“) or neuter (,,das“). The nominative plural of any gender is always ,,die“.

TIP!   The most common gender in German is the masculine, so keep that in mind the next time you’re guessing.

In the examples below, the nominative word or expression is in red:

Der Tisch ist toll. The table is great.
Das ist ein Bild. This is a picture.
Die Tiefkühlkost ist da hinten. The frozen food is over there.
Das ist eine gute idee. That’s a good idea.
Das sind keine Sonderangebote. The are currently no special offers.
Der Hund beißt den Mann. The dog bites the man.
Dieser Gedanke ist blöd. This thought is stupid.
Meine Mutter ist Architektin.1 My mother is an architect.
1 The nominative case can also be found in the predicate, as in the last example. The verb “is” acts like an equal sign (my mother = architect). But the nominative is most often the subject of a sentence.

Take a look at the following mindmap:

Nominative Mindmap

Nominative Mindmap

That’s all for today!!! See ya!!! \o/