die Adjektivdeklination – Typ 3

Hi everyone,

Let’s continue talking about adjective endings…

To review the Strong inflexion, click here: Starke Deklination.

To review the Mixed inflexion, click here: Gemischte Deklination.

Typ 3 : Schwasche Deklination

Weak inflection, or ,,Schwasche Deklination“, is used:

  • After the definite article
  • After ,,derselb-” (the same), ,,derjenig-” (the one)
  • After ,,dies-” (this), ,,jen-” (that), ,,jeglich-” (any), ,,jed-” (every), which decline like the definite article.
  • After ,,manch-” (some), ,,solch-“ (such), ,,welch-” (which), which decline like definite article.
  • After ,,mir”, ,,dir“, ,,ihm
  • After ,,arm” (meagre), ,,alt” (old), ,,all” (all)
Weak Inflexion
Männlich
masculine
Weiblich
feminine
Sächlich
neuter
Mehrzahl
plural
 Nominativ -e -e -e -en
 Akkusativ -en -e -e -en
 Dativ -en -en -en -en
Genitiv  -en -en -en -en

The adjective endings rule with the definite article (derdiedas) or the so-called der-words (dieserjeder, etc.) is simple:

  1. The adjective endings in the nominative is always ,,-e” (except for the plural that is always ,,-en” in all situations!).
  2. The adjective endings in the  accusative identical to those in the nominative case, except for the masculine gender (der/den).
  3. The adjective endings in the dative and genitive is ALWAYS –en!

Adjektivdeklination typ 3

That is all I’ve learned about adjective endings by now!!!! So, keep practicing and wait for new posts!! 😀

die Adjektivdeklination – Typ 2

Hi everyone, Let’s continue talking about adjective endings… To review the Strong inflexion, click here: Starke Deklination.

Typ 2 : Gemischte Deklination

Mixed inflection, or ,,Gemischte Deklination“, is used:

  • After the indefinite article ,,ein-“, ,,kein-
  • After the possessive determiners in singular.
Mixed Inflexion
Männlich masculine Weiblich feminine Sächlich neuter Mehrzahl plural
 Nominativ -er -e -es -en*1
 Akkusativ -en -e -es -en*1
 Dativ -en -en -en -en*1
Genitiv  -en -en -en -en*1

*1 kein/e/n is used to show the plural because you can say “no shoes” but not “a shoes”! With ein-words (ein, deinkeine, etc.), the adjective must reflect the gender of the noun that follows.

  1. The adjective endings in the nominative ,,-er“, ,,-e” and ,,-es” correspond to the articles ,,der“, ,,die“, and ,,das” respectively.
  2. The adjective endings in the  accusative ,,-en“, ,,-e” and ,,-es” correspond to the articles ,,den“, ,,die“, and ,,das” respectively.
  3. The adjective endings in the dative and genitive is ALWAYS –en!

Adjektivdeklination typ 2 I will talk more about the weak inflexion in the next post. As I said previously, keep practicing German gender nouns and cases because it is very important!!! 😉

die Adjektivdeklination – Typ 1

Hallo!!

Today I’m going to start talking about German adjectives. In German an adjective is a word that usually go in front of a noun or pronoun they modify, giving more information about their definition.

,,der gute Mann” (the good man)

,,das große Auto” (the big car)

,,die schöne Dame” (the pretty lady)

A German adjective in front of a noun has to have an ending (,,Adjektivdeklination“), which depends on several factors, including gender (der, die, das), case (nominativeaccusativedative) and the type of declension (“strong”, “mixed” or “weak”).

Several adjectives take no ending at all:

  • Singular limiting adjectives: wenig, etwas, genug, and viel
  • The plural limiting phrase ‘ein Paar’
  • When the adjective come after the verb (predicate adjective)

,,Das Haus ist groß.” (The house is large.)

As we already know when to use the German cases, let’s talk about the type of declension:

Typ 1 : Starke Deklination

Strong Inflexion, or ,,Starke Deklination“, is used:

  • When no article is used
  • After ,,etwas” (some; somewhat), ,,mehr” (more), ,,nichts” (nothing)
  • After ,,wenig-” (few), ,,viel-” (much; many), ,,mehrer-” (several; many), ,,all-” (all), which also have strong adjective inflection
  • After personal pronouns other than ,,mir“, ,,dir“, ,,ihm
  • After number adjectives with no endings
Strong Inflexion
Männlich
masculine
Weiblich
feminine
Sächlich
neuter
Mehrzahl
plural
 Nominativ -er -e -es -e
 Akkusativ -en -e -es -e
 Dativ -em -er -em -en
Genitiv  -en -er -en -er

Adjektivdeklination typ 1

I will talk more about the other types of declension in the next posts… keep practicing German gender nouns and cases! 😉

See ya!!

der Genitiv

Hi!!!

I’m glad to communicate that we are at the final step of our “Marathon of German Grammatical Cases” (MGGC)!!!! LOL

The genitive case in German shows possession, is used with some verb idioms and with the genitive prepositions. In English, it is expressed by the possessive “of” or an apostrophe-s (‘s). The genitive only has two forms: des/eines (masculine and neuter) or der/einer (feminine and plural).  Click here for more informations.

der Genitiv - Charlie Brown

NOTES!

  1. Some masculine nouns add an –en or –n ending in the genitive and in all other cases besides the nominative. ⇨ ,,des Architekten” (architect)
  2. Feminine and plural nouns do not add an ending in the genitive.
  3. The adjectives almost always have an –en ending. ⇨ ,,des neuen Autos” (the new car)
  4. The genitive form of most neuter and masculine nouns in German have either –es or –s ending (almost all nouns ending in sssßschz or tz must end with -es in the genitive). ⇨ ,,das Auto meines Bruders” (my brother’s car) or ,,der Titel des Filmes (Films)” (the title of the film)

The question word in the genitive is wessen (whose):

,,Wessen Buch hast du?” (Whose book do you have?)

A common error made even by native-speakers of German is to use an apostrophe in possessive forms (just like in English). For instance, they will often write “Maria’s Haus” instead of the correct form, “Marias Haus”.

GENITIVE EXPRESSIONS

The genitive is also used in some idiomatic or formulaic expressions (which are not usually translated into English with “of”).

 Idiomatic or Formulaic Expressions
Deutsch Englisch
eines Tages one day, some day
eines Nachts one night (note irreg. genitive form)
eines kelten Winters one cold winter
erster Klasse fahren to travel in first class
letzten Endes when all is said and done
meines Wissens to my knowledge
meines Erachtens in my opinion/view

GENITIVE PREPOSITIONS

Some German prepositions are governed by the genitive case.

,,Während der Woche arbeiten wir.” (During the week we work.)

,,Trotz des Wetters fahren wir heute nach Hause.” (In spite of the weather we’re driving home today.)

Genitive Prepositions
Deutsch Englisch
anstatt instead of
außerhalb outside of
innerhalb inside of
trotz despite, in spite of
während during, in the course of
wegen because of
angesichts in view of
beiderseits on both sides of
diesseits this side of
jenseits on the other side of
laut according to

NOTES!

  1. The genitive prepositions listed above are often used with the dative in spoken German, particularly in certain regions:

,,trotz dem Wetter” (in spite of the weather)

,,während der Woche” (during the week) (same as genitive)

,,wegen den Kosten ” (because of the costs)

NO GENITIVE ENDING

The genitive ending is omitted with:

  • Many foreign words:

,,des Atlas” (Atlas)

,,des Euro(s)” (the euro)

  • Most foreign geographical names:

,,des High Point” (of High Point)

,,die Berge des Himalaja(s)” (the Himalayan mountains)

  • Days of the week, months:

,,des Montag” (of monday)

,,des Mai/Maies/Maien” (of May)

,,des Januar” (of January)

  • Names with titles (ending on title only):

,,des Professors Schmidt” (of Professor Schmidt)

,,des Herrn Maier” (of Mr. Maier)

But…

,,des Doktor (Dr.) Müller” (of Doctor (Dr.) Müller) ⇨ “Dr.” is considered part of the name

USING ,,VON” INSTEAD OF THE GENITIVE

The genitive is used more in written German than in spoken form. It is usually replaced by a von-phrase (von + dative) or (particulary in Austria and southern Germany) a possessive pronoun phrase:

,,Das Auto von meinem Bruder.” (My brother‘s car.)

,,die/der Maria ihre Freunde.” (Maria‘s friends.)

The genitive is preferred in place of a von-phrase…

  • when it may have a dual or ambiguous meaning:

,,von meinem Vater” (of/from my father) ⇨ von-phrase

,,des Vaters” (of my father) ⇨ genitive

The genitive is often replaced by a von-phrase…

  • to avoid repetition:

,,der Schlüssel von der Tür des Hauses” (the key from the door of the house)

  • to avoid awkward language situations:

,,das Auto von Fritz” (rather than ,,des Fritzchens” or ,,Fritz’ Auto“) (the car of Fritz)

  • in spoken German:

,,der Bruder von Hans” (the brother of Hans)

The genitive MUST be replaced by a von-phrase with…

  • pronouns:

,,jeder von uns” (each of us)

,,ein Onkel von ihr” (an uncle of her)

  • a single noun without an article or declined adjective:

,,ein Geruch von Benzin”  (a smell of gasoline)

,,die Mutter von vier Kindern” (the mother of four children)

  • after ,,viel” or ,,wenig“:

,,viel von dem guten Bier” (much of the good beer)

Das ist alles, Leute!!! (That is all folks!!!) 😀

die vier deutschen Fällen

Hi everyone!!!

As I’ve been promissed, today I will start talking about the four German grammatical cases… finally!!! hahaha

The German grammatical cases are:

  1. ,,Nominativ“: It is simply the subject of the sentence.
  2. ,,Akkusativ“: It is the direct object of the sentence. This is the case governed by most verbs and prepositions.
  3. ,,Dativ“: The words are declined when they have indirect object function. A smaller number of verbs and prepositions govern the dative.
  4. ,,Genitiv“: It is essentially the case of possession.

English cases are only apparent with pronouns, not with nouns, as in German. When “he” changes to “him” in English, that’s exactly the same thing that happens when er changes to ihn in German (and der changes to den). This allows German to have more flexibility in word order, for example:

,,Der Hund beißt den Mann.” (“The dog bites the man.”)
,,Den Mann beißt der Hund.” (“The dog bites the man.”)
,,Beißt der Hund den Mann?” (“Is the dog biting the man?”)
,,Beißt den Mann der Hund?” (“Is the dog biting the man?”)

In German the word order can be changed for emphasis, without altering the basic meaning. But if you say “Man bites dog” in English, rather than “Dog bites man”, you change the meaning. Because English does not have the same case markers (der/den), it must depend on word order.

Definite Articles (the)
Fall
Case
Männlich
masculine
Weiblich
feminine
Sächlich
neuter
Mehrzahl
plural
Nom der die das die
Akk den die das die
Dat dem der dem den
Gen des der des der
Indefinite Articles (a/an)
Fall
Case
Männlich
masculine
Weiblich
feminine
Sächlich
neuter
Mehrzahl
plural
Nom (k)ein (k)eine (k)ein keine*
Akk (k)einen (k)eine (k)ein keine*
Dat (k)einem (k)einer (k)einem keine*
Gen (k)eines (k)einer (k)eines keine*

NOTE!

  1. ,,Keine” is the negative of ,,eine“, which has no plural form. But ,,keine” (no/none) can be used in the plural.
Demonstrative Pronouns (der, die, denen)
Fall
Case
Männlich
masculine
Weiblich
feminine
Sächlich
neuter
Mehrzahl
plural
Nom der
that one
die
that one
das
that one
die
these
Akk den
that one
die
that one
das
that one
die
those
Dat dem
(to) that
der
(to) that
dem
(to) that
denen
(to) them
Gen dessen
of that
deren
of that
dessen
of that
deren
of them

NOTE!

  1. When the definite articles are used as demonstrative pronouns, only the dative plural and genitive forms are different from the normal definite articles.
Personal Pronouns
   Nom  Akk  Dat  Gen
 1. Person
sing.
ich
I
 mich
me
 mir
(to) me
mein
my
 2. Person
sing.
 du
you
 dich
you
 dir
(to) you
dein
your
 3. Person
sing.
er
he
ihn
him
ihm
(to) him
sein
his
 3. Person
sing.
 sie
she
sie
her
ihr
(to) her
ihr
her
 3. Person
sing.
 es
it
 es
it
 ihm
(to) it
sein
its
 1. Person
plur.
 wir
we
 uns
us
 uns
(to) us
unser
our
 2. Person
plur.
ihr
you
 euch
you
euch
(to) you
euer
your
 2. Person
formal
 Sie Sie
you
Ihnen
(to) you
 Ihr
your
 3. Person
plur.
sie
they
sie
them
ihnen
(to) them
 ihre
their

NOTES!

  1. The possessive pronoun forms shown here do not indicate the various additional case endings (genitive, dative, etc.) they might have in a typical sentence in various situations (i.e., ,,seiner“, ,,ihres“, etc.).
  2. ,,Sie” is the same in the singular and plural. It is always capitalized in all of its forms.
Interrogative “who”
Fall
Case
Wer?
who?
Nom wer
Akk wen
whom
Dat wem
(to) whom
Gen wessen
whose

NOTES!

  1. ,,Wer” (who) has no plural form in German or English.
  2. The interrogative ,,was” (what) is the same in the nominative and accusative cases. It has no dative or genitive forms and is related to ,,das” and ,,es“. Like ,,wer“, ,,was” has no plural form in German or English.

Examples:

,,Er (der Hund) beißt den Mann.” (“He (the dog) bites the man.”)
,,Ihn (den Mann) hat der Hund gebissen.” (“The dog bit him (the man).”)
,,Wen hat er gebissen?” (“Whom did he bite?”)
,,Wer ist das?” (“Who is that?”)
,,Du hast mich doch gesehen?” (“You did see me (didn’t you)?”)
,,Die hat keine Ahnung.” (“She/That one has no idea.”)

For more about each case, see the next posts!!!! 😉